The SNMP messages themselves contain the information from the managed device or instructions from the NMS in a data field and each message also contains the identity of the community to which the device belongs. The SNMP messages are sent across the network encapsulated within a UDP (User Datagram Protocol) packet, which in turn is encapsulated within an IP (Internet Protocol) packet.
The agent software installed on the host devices have what is known as a MIB (Management Information Base), which is a database containing a list of manageable objects on the device. When a device needs to inform the Network Management Station about a configuration or status change, it sends a message known as a TRAP to the community NMS informing of the change.
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